6 Largest Mountain Ranges of Russia (with Map & Photos)

Mountain ranges and massifs occupy about a fourth of the vast territory of Russia. There are several dozen large mountain ranges in the European and Asian parts of the country, most of which are concentrated in the eastern and southeastern regions.

The largest mountain systems in Russia are the Ural, Khibiny, Caucasian, Kamchatka, Altai and Crimean.

Ural Mountains


Mountain ranges of Russia
Ural Mountains

The Ural Mountains are the longest in Russia and divide its territory from north to south into the European part and the Asian part. These are the oldest mountains in the country. The Ural mountain system is divided into the Subpolar, Polar, Northern, Middle and Southern Urals.

Khibiny Mountains


Mountain ranges of Russia
Khibiny Mountains

The Khibiny Mountains, located on the Kola Peninsula, near the Arctic Ocean, like the Ural Mountains, claim to be the oldest mountains in Russia. Their formation ended 390 million years ago and since then the once high mountains under the influence of the movement of glaciers and wind erosion have become much smaller. 

Caucasus Mountains


Mountain ranges of Russia
Caucasus Mountains

The Caucasus Mountains are considered the highest in Russia. The mountains are located between the Black and Caspian Seas. By geological standards, the Caucasus Mountains were formed relatively recently, only 28 million years ago. Due to the fact that these mountains are young and they were formed during the collision of lithospheric plates, they retain high seismic activity. There are active volcanoes here. In these mountains is the Main Caucasian - the longest mountain range in Russia.

Kamchatka Mountains


Mountain ranges of Russia
Kamchatka Mountains

The Kamchatka Mountains with their numerous active volcanoes and geysers are rightfully considered the most mysterious and enigmatic mountains in Russia. The mountain range is located on the easternmost outskirts of the country, on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The mountain range consists of chains of several ridges. These are the ranges Valaginsky, Ganalsky, Vostochny, Vachkazhets, Kumroch. The most famous volcano in the Kamchatka Mountains is Klyuchevskaya Sopka.

Altai Mountains


Mountain ranges of Russia
Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains are one of the largest mountain systems in Russia. Only part of the mountain range is located on the territory of Russia. They also stretch across the territory of Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia. There are no active volcanoes here, but mountain formation is still taking place. The Altai Mountains are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List because of their special relief, rare flora and fauna.

Crimean Mountains


Mountain ranges of Russia
Crimean Mountains

The Crimean Mountains are located on the Crimean peninsula and overlook the Black Sea. They are the smallest mountain range in Russia. The most famous peak of the Crimean mountain system is Mount Ayu-Dag, which is only 540 meters high.

In general, the mountains and mountain ranges of Russia play a very important role, not only as an area for the growth of unique plants and the habitat of rare species of animals, birds and fish, which is why a large number of state reserves and sanctuaries have been created there.

They are also centers of attraction for domestic and international tourism. Fans of hiking trails, ski slopes, rafting on mountain rivers and lakes, as well as beginners and professional climbers come here all year round.

Mountains play a huge role for the Russian economy, because their territory is a real storehouse of minerals that are so important for the existence and development of Russian industry and the economy as a whole.